Ever since Alan Turing published his paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence in 1950, computer scientists have tried to get machines to mimic human behaviour and make them as intelligent or as smart as human beings, by having them play imitation games.
Turing raised the question: Can machines think? He suggested that something “resembling thinking” could be achieved if we provide the machine with the best sense organs that money can buy, and then teach it to understand and speak English. This is the main reason why we call modern machines with some imitation capacity smart devices.
Today, a new generation of speaking devices interact with us in human-like ways to execute simple tasks and answer questions, and not only in English. How is this possible?
A smart speaker is a speaker with a built-in microphone that allows users to interact with other smart devices or internet services using their voice.
The brain that makes the smart speaker smart is the virtual assistant. A virtual assistant is a software service that takes the voice of the user as its input, identifies a command or question, interacts when necessary with other services and provides a spoken response.
Users say a wake-up expression to activate the virtual assistant, such as Alexa, or OK Google. Unless turned off by users, smart speaker microphones are switched on continuously in order to detect wake-up expressions. To indicate to users when the smart speaker is recording voice data, the device switches on a light.
The current generation of smart speakers typically have built-in functionalities to search for information on the internet, play music, make phone calls and manage lists. They may also allow for new functionalities and extensions, such as controlling a smart door lock, by installing third-party developed software, through Alexa’s skills or Google Home’s actions, for example.
Most popular smart speaker and virtual assistants
Until now, user interaction with most technology was mainly visual and tactile. Smart speakers and virtual assistants use voice as the main means of interaction. In our preliminary understanding, this poses several data protection challenges to most of the existing smart speakers and virtual assistants.
Ensuring that all users are clearly informed about the data controllers and processors involved in the processing, the types of data processed – such as the user’s voice, location and usage history - or the purposes of the processing, is very difficult. For example, once a smart speaker is up and running, it is unlikely that users other than the person who installed the device will have read the written notices that came with the device.
Without transparency, personal data collected by smart speakers could be misused for purposes that go far beyond user expectations. For example, newly patented technologies aim to infer health status and emotional states from a user’s voice and adapt the services provided accordingly.
Smart speakers process the data of voices recorded by their microphones, whether these voices are one of the intended users or not. There is no mechanism yet to prevent a smart speaker from processing the data of a specific individual.
When it comes to processing children’s data, there seems to be no way of ensuring that the person with parental responsibility has provided their consent. Parental controls are available to a certain degree but in their current form they are not user friendly. More alarmingly, there are already reports that voice recordings of children are being used to create voiceprints that could be used to identify them when detected by other devices in other locations.
Smart speakers can mistakenly detect a spoken expression as their wake-up expression and therefore process personal data without user consent.
The wake-up expression can be changed and an individual who is not aware of this change could accidentally switch on the smart speaker.
It is not easy for users of smart speakers to find out how long their data will be stored. Users are generally left with the task of deleting any data the virtual assistant has processed and kept. In some cases, it might not even be possible to delete all of the data stored. Depending on the virtual assistant, the deletion function might only partially delete the data, deleting only voice data, for example.
By analysing data collected via smart speakers, it is possible to know or infer user interests, schedules, driving routes or habits. All this data could be used, without people knowing, for profiling and to provide unsolicited personalised services, such as advertising or modified search results.
Current smart speaker and virtual assistant designs do not offer yet proper access control to personal data. Authentication by voice recognition is optional and does not allow for control of access to personal data by all services. If it is not using voice recognition, access control relies on an optional PIN number that a user has to say.
It is possible to manipulate a smart speaker remotely via signal broadcasting and compromise the speaker via radio or TV. Most smart speakers blindly trust their local networks. Any compromised device in the same network could change the settings of the smart speaker or install malware on it without the user’s knowledge or agreement.
If working as currently designed, smart speakers locally record for a few seconds and do not send any information to the speech recognition cloud service until the wake-up expression is detected. However, smart speakers could be the target of attacks and access requests from law enforcement agencies. They could access local voice recordings before they are deleted, turning smart speakers into a massive surveillance system installed by the victims of this surveillance.
As is evident from the previous examples, the current design and behaviour of most smart speakers and virtual assistants does not fully comply with the principles of data protection by design and data protection by default. When developing, designing, selecting and using applications, services and products that are based on the processing of personal data or process personal data to fulfil their task, producers of the products, services and applications should take into account the right to data protection from the outset.
The design of a smart speaker should address data protection issues, in particular to make sure users are informed about the processing of their personal data, to enable them to manage their consent and to demonstrate accountability so that users are fully aware of what happens to their personal data.
This publication is a brief report produced by the Information Technology Policy Unit of the European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS). It aims to provide a factual description of an emerging technology and discuss its possible impacts on privacy and the protection of personal data. The contents of this publication do not imply a policy position of the EDPS.
Author of this issue: Xabier Lareo
Editor: Thomas Zerdick
HTML ISBN 978-92-9242-423-7
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